What is hypertension?
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Causes of Hypertension?
There are two types of high blood pressure.
Primary (essential) hypertension:-
For most adults, there is no identifiable cause of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure is called primary (essential) hypertension which tends to develop gradually over many years.
Some people have high blood pressure caused by an underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:-
Obstructive sleep apnea.Kidney problems.Adrenal gland tumors.Thyroid problems .Certain defects in blood vessels you're born with (congenital).Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs.Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines.Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use.
Measures to prevent Hypertension:-
Maintain normal body weight for adults (e.g. body mass index 20–25 kg/m2)
Reduce dietary sodium intake to <100 mmol/ day
(<6 g of sodium chloride or <2.4 g of sodium per day)
Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking
(≥30 min per day, most days of the week)
Limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3 units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day in women.
Consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (e.g. at least five portions per day)